Bacterial Decision Making Deciphered Within The Protein Molecule

Do you know that protein, which makes up 45% of the human body, plays a large number of important functions in the human body? Do you also know that the protein molecule is an essential macromolecule without which your body would be unable to repair, regulate or protect itself? Medical Information UK Are you aware that there exist about 50,000 types of protein molecule structures currently known to scientists and in view of the existence of in the large number of molecule structure, do you know how complicated it can be to understand JUST the category protein itself?

This protein molecule structure mystery is so secretive and rich in depth that scientist will never be able to unearth all the potential of this macromolecule. This is the marvel of God’s creation of living things that it takes time for Man to discover his creator’s works.

By the fact that there exist 50,000 types of protein molecule structures, it must of some worth to know why scientists continue to pursue their search on proteins. To be precise, protein have many functions and amongst them are:-

building and repair of body tissues including muscles,
existing as enzymes, hormones and many immune molecules in their respective actions,
its requirement in ensuring essential body processes such as water balancing, nutrient transport and muscle contractions,
as a source of energy,
helps keep skin, hair and nails healthy, and
like most other essential nutrients, it is absolutely and crucially needed for overall good health.
Proteins, acting as the main driving force in cell and organism activity, is most crucial as without proteins the most basic functions of life could not be carried out. Respiration requiring muscle contractions and muscle contractions require proteins is a typical example. The function of proteins as enzymes is perhaps their best-known function. Enzymes as catalysts are responsible for catalyzing in about 4,000 bodily reactions in processes such as metabolism, DNA replication and digestion.

Proteins that occur in cell membranes or membrane-bound are very important targets for many of the drugs needed to treat diseases and any wider access to their structures could bring great benefits to human health. If it were possible to determine the structure of a protein without any complicated way, there will be great acceleration in understanding proteins.

Cells signal one another for a wide variety of reasons with the most basic being simply to coordinate cellular activities. Signaling is how cells communicate with one another, allowing such essential processes as the contraction of the heart muscle to take place. Proteins are important in these processes due to their ability to bind other molecules. A protein produced by one cell may bind to a molecule produced by another, thus providing a chemical signal which allows the cells to provide information about their state. Proteins are also involved in molecular transport such as the hemoglobin protein which binds iron molecules and transports them in the blood from the lungs to organs and tissues throughout the body.

Proteins occurring as structural proteins confer strength and rigidity to biological components which would otherwise be unable to support themselves. Structural proteins have very specific shapes as long, thin fibers or other shapes which, when allowed to form polymers, provide strength and support. Structural proteins are essential components of collagen, cartilage, nails and hair, feathers, hooves, and other such components and are also essential components of muscles in generating the force which allows muscles to contract and move.

Such is the extent of its purpose that proteins are the key to essential good healthy living. More than 40 years after beta blockers were first used clinically, scientists can finally get a detailed, three-dimensional look at the drugs’ molecular target, the beta2-adrenergic receptor. This receptor hails from a family of proteins called G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that control critical bodily functions, several of our senses and the action of about half of today’s pharmaceuticals.

Similarly, biochemists have answered a fundamental question of how important bacterial proteins make life-and-death decisions that allow them to function, a finding that could provide a new target for drugs to disrupt bacterial decision-making processes and related diseases. Scientists have shown for the first time that the specific movements of these important bacterial proteins, called transition-state regulators, guide how the proteins bind with DNA and thus control a variety of functions. These rare proteins are like army generals sizing up a battlefield and while they all look the same and have the same rank, their highly specialized “wiggles” allow them to figure out how to bind to different parts of DNA, triggering defense capabilities or give commands. It has been shown that for the first time, proteins with identical shapes have different movements and these movements allow proteins to select proper DNA targets that lead to tens or hundreds of differing processes. This has presented a new thought about stopping bacteria. If a drug or antibiotic can stymie the motion of the transition-state regulators, bacteria won’t be able to figure out where to bind to DNA and as such effectively shutting the bacteria down. It is akin to killing a general which therefore stops the infantry from taking the battlefield.

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